Saturday, March 14, 2020
How to Make a Volcano Erupt With Smoke Volcanic gases or smoke are associated with many volcanoes. Gases from a real volcano consist of water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, other gases, and sometimes ash. Do you want to add a touch of realism to your homemade volcano? Its easy to make it smoke. Heres what you do. Materials Basically, how this works is you start with any homemade volcano recipe and insert a container into the cone of the volcano to produce smoke. Model volcano (homemade or purchased)Eruption ingredients (e.g., baking soda and vinegar or yeast and peroxide)Small cup that fits inside the volcanoChunk of dry iceHot waterGloves or tongs How To Its helpful to start the smoke before adding the ingredient that starts your volcanic eruption. The smoke will appear either way, but its easier to handle the dry ice before the action starts. Add ingredients to your volcano, except the final one that starts the eruption. For example, a vinegar and baking soda volcano doesnt erupt until you pour vinegar into the volcano. A yeast and peroxide volcano doesnt erupt until you pour peroxide solution into the volcano. If you are simply making a model volcano smoke, you dont need to worry about this step.Set a cup inside the volcano.Add a chunk of dry ice or else several small pieces. If you cant buy dry ice, you can make it yourself.Pour hot water into the cup with the dry ice. This will cause the dry ice to sublimate from solid carbon dioxide into carbon dioxide gas. The gas is much colder than the surrounding air, so it will cause water vapor to condense, essentially forming fog.Now you have a smoking volcano! If you like, you can make it erupt now, too. Make Smoke Without Dry Ice If you dont have dry ice, you can still make smoke come out of a homemade volcano. For a non-erupting model volcano, you could use a smoke bomb to produce a lot of smoke. You have other options for a smoking erupting volcano, including: Safe and non-toxic water fogLiquid nitrogen fogGlycol fog Safety Information Dry ice is extremely cold and can cause frostbite if you pick it up with bare skin. Its best to use a glove or tongs to handle the dry ice.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
The Mobil-Marathon case - Essay Example The Directors of Marathon Oil Company filed an antitrust suit against Mobil at United States District Court in the Northern Ohio District. In the case, the director of Marathon argued that Mobil violated section seven of Clayton Act. The Act rejects the ideas of holding companies since they encourage the development of monopolies. The directors of Marathon wanted the court to restrain Mobil by preventing the company from purchasing shares of the company and permit the company to keep looking for other companies with which to form an appropriate merger. The district court ruled in the favor of Marathon Oil Company, which then proceeded to look for other companies. The directors of Marathon settled for United States Steel Inc., which was just newly formed. Just as the two were about to form a merger, Mobil Corporation filed a suit at the District Court in Southern District of Ohio arguing that Marathon had violated the Williams Act by withholding substantial information in its communication with its shareholders about merger and while filing with the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s Stock Exchange Commission. Mobil Corp argued that the directors of Marathon had not disclosed adequate material facts of USS, Inc.Ã¢â¬â¢s tender offer. Mobil therefore requested an injunction on the merger. The district court denied the injunction. Mobil Corp appealed the ruling to the Sixth Circuit Court. The Circuit Court determined that Mobil indeed had the standing to bring a case against Marathon Oil Company since it was a tender offeror. As such, the Court began investigating the operations of Marathon as tabled by Mobil Corp. the court found that in its defensive tactics, Marathon Oil Company had violated a number of provisions of the WilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s act (Kwoka and Lawrence 21). The two interrelated cases above involved a number of legal issues in the United States key among which was the interpretation and application of both the Williams Act and the ClaytonÃ¢â¬â¢s Antitrust Act.
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
CONTEMPORARY BRAND MANAGEMENT - Assignment Example The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s brand portfolio comprises three major brands including: Adidas, Reebok and TaylorMade. Adidas market area includes sporting goods as well as the equipment industry. The chief segments of this industry include footwear for athletes, sports apparel, and also goods and equipment used for sporting. Other segments include equipment for: hunting, golf tennis, fishing, hiking, baseball, football, rollerblading, biking, snowboarding, surfing, skateboarding, skiing, and hockey, along with play scape and playground equipment. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s key competitors include Nike and PUMA. Others are Red tape, New Balance Bata, and Liberty. Athletes together with sports enthusiasts comprise the Adidas customers (Keller 2007, pp. 33). According to Kotler and Dubois (1991, pp. 23) a brand refers to a collection of mental links, held by a given consumer, and which add to the perceived worth of a service/product. These links should be strong, unique, and positive. Alternately, a pr oduct refers to anything which can be presented to a market for acquisition, attention, or consumption and which might fulfil a need or a want. The difference between a brand and a product is such that a brand is acknowledged with intangible values plus imagery, while a product is recognized with characteristics that are visible and very differentiating. Brand architecture strategy refers to the structure employed in organizing a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio. It identifies the number and functions of brand names which the company utilises for its product range and also the target markets or target groups. Brand architectures are of various types including: product branding; house of brands; range branding; branded house; source branding; line branding; umbrella branding; endorsed branding and sub-brands. Adidas has adopted the branded house strategy. This is whereby, the brand shifts from being a leading driver to a more dominant one (John & Larry 1997, pp. 48). Brand positioning and its relevance to branding According to Aaker (1992, pp.22), brand positioning involves locating the brand in the intellect or minds of customers in order to exploit the potential profits to the business. Brand positioning is comprised of the following components: Product class or market. This refers to a collection of products/services and brands that are perceived as alternatives to fulfil some precise consumer need. Consumer segmentation. It describes consumer profiles that the brand will serve and what their needs are. Consumer segmentation can be accomplished in terms of geographical/physical location (i.e. region, urban/sub-urban, county size, seasons, climate, etc); demographic factors (i.e. age, education, sex, income, family size, religion, occupation, nationality and race); behavioural factors (i.e. loyalty status, benefits sought, purchase occasion, usage rate, user status, actual purchase and attitude to product) (Aaker 1992, pp.24). Perceptual mapping. This refers to a g raphic approach employed by marketers which tries to visually customer perceptions. It entails methods applied in the analysis and comprehension of how consumers perceive products. It includes the identification of product weaknesses; development and assessment of concepts; consumer perceptionsÃ¢â¬â¢ tracking; and finally, unearthing group differences (Aaker 1992, pp.26). Brand benefits and attributes. The physical presence of a brand does not guarantee its position in mind of the target consumer. For the product to gain entry into that
Friday, January 31, 2020
Comprehensive Plan to Improve Human Resources Essay Whole Foods Market- a company that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think of itself as a company, but as a community of people working to make a difference in the world. At Whole Foods, the mission matters as much as the bottom line. But who is Whole Foods Market, and how does their Human Resource Management (HRM) play a role in the development of their culture or work environment? This comprehensive plan will describe Whole Foods MarketÃ¢â¬â¢s history and the challenges and/or opportunities of the company. It will explore the effectiveness of the organizations current human resource practices with regard to the employees and describe strategies to improve the quality of those practices. Additionally, the impact of implementing the strategic improvements and how the organization would measure success upon implementation will be discussed. Whole Foods Market: The Organization Whole Foods Market is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leader in natural and organic foods. With more than 270 stores in North America and the United Kingdom, the organization seeks out the best natural and organic foods obtainable; while preserving better-quality standards in the industry. According to Porter and Kramer (2009), the intention of the organization is to sell organic, natural, and healthy food products to its consumers who are passionate about food and the environment. Whole Foods Market focuses on unrefined foods, health and nutrition. They are definitely not like any other grocery store. Their ultimate goal is to become an international brand identical with not just natural and organic goods, but also with being the greatest food retailer in every community in which they are located. Therefore, Whole Foods Market must purposefully plan and assess the marketing of its goods according to the demand of the customers (Whole Foods Market, n. d). For the last thirteen years, team members at Whole Foods Market, named their company as one of Fortune magazineÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"100 Best Companies to work for. Ã¢â¬ In 2010, they were ranked number eighteen. Whole Foods is acknowledged for its team-based operations and employee-oriented work culture, which are considered to be the foundations of its development and success within the industry (Whole Foods Market, n. d. ). Whole Foods Market takes pride in setting themselves apart from their competitors within the industry. No matter how much the company excels in size or makes changes to the organization, the organization supports change by establishing and maintaining seven core values. According to Whole Foods Market (n. ), the core values are Ã¢â¬Å"selling the highest quality of natural and organic products available, satisfying and delighting customers, supporting team member happiness and excellence, creating wealth through profit and growth, caring about the community and environment, creating an ongoing win-win partnership with suppliers, and promoting the health of stakeholders through healthy eating education. Ã¢â¬ Included in these core values are open communication and transparency, education and training, and staff empowerment. No matter how large a company Whole Foods Market becomes, they preserve what makes them unique through these core values. Whole Foods Market: Challenges and Opportunities As with many organizations, the past economic down turn has caused many organizations to face a lot of challenges and to make difficult business decisions. Whole Foods Market created a permanent modification in how they operate many vital areas of the business. This year, 2010, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business model includes continued focus on vital areas of the company by focusing in on purchasing with regards to the business while creating more worth for the consumer regarding pricing (Whole Foods Market, n. d). In the letter to the stakeholders (2009), Mackey, CEO desires to stay focused on dropping operating cost without harming the customer experience. Additionally, he states that as an organization they are committed to being better custodians of capital and producing free cash flow on a yearly basis. In the future, Mackey foresees new smaller stores that are less expensive, and an increase return on invested capital. A recent 2009 SWOT Analysis of the organization from Datamonitor (2009) listed some additional opportunities such as the recent strategic acquisitions that helped in strengthening their market position. These acquisitions also help the organization to expand its operations in the natural and organic foods markets as well as increase its client base and the number of product categories. One acquisition in particular is the merge with Wild Oats Market in 2007. Other opportunities recorded by Datamonitor (2009) include the growing demand for private label products. Recent economic conditions have warranted companies to offer less expensive private label products as an alternative to the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Whole Foods Market: Human Resource Management Strategies What makes Whole Foods stand out from others in the industry is not a single management process but a distinctive managing structure which includes Human Resource Management support. According to Rose and Kumar (2006) it is important that organizations utilize HRM practices that make best use of its employees, and that is just what Whole Foods Market has done. For example, at Whole Foods, the basic organizational unit isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the store but small teams that manage departments such as fresh produce, prepared foods, and seafood. Teams are consulted on all store-level decisions and they have been given a degree of independence that is very unique in the industry (Whole Foods Market, n. d). According to Hamel (2006), each team makes decisions concerning stock, and new hires. Bonuses are paid to the teams, not to individuals. Members have access to comprehensive fiscal information, including the details of every coworkerÃ¢â¬â¢s wage. Whole Foods Market has been very successful with their ability to recruit and retain good employees. The recruiting process is exceptionally unique. According to Whole Foods Market (n. d), applicants are generally screened by store management or by a human resources person through a preliminary interview. Once the individual is screened for overall job skills and qualifications, the application is referred to the appropriate department managers for a final interview. The final interview process may be conducted by a team or panel depending on the position. Team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s partaking in group interviews is one way the company puts its culture of empowerment into action. Hamel and Breen (2007), state that this recruiting process is used for all new employees; including those hoping to join teams at Whole FoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ center of operations, such as the national IT or finance groups. Additional HRM practices include the organizations focus on compensation and incentive based rewards. According to Erickson and Gratton (2007), this is one of the main components of their rewards system within the organization. Each teamÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation is directly linked to how well that team functions. Team performance is considered in terms of overall productivity; profit-sharing based on those numbers are added directly to each team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation. Teams are responsible for a different product category or aspect of store operations such as customer service, prepared foods, or grocery, among others. Whole Foods believes in a company-wide awareness of sharing the fate of the business by combining the wellbeing of team members as directly as possible with the interests of the shareholders. The organization uses a gain sharing program to reinforce concept. This program rewards things that members of the team can control such as work efficiency which gives members a direct stake in the victories of the company (Whole Foods Market, n. d). Whole Foods also encourages stock ownership options in plans such as the Team Member Stock Option Plan. Within this plan, all members are entitled to receive a grant of stock options each year. According to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (2007), the grant has two components: the Annual Leadership Grants identify and motivate team member performance; and the Service Hour Grants identify team member service within the Company. Another plan is the Team Member Stock Purchase Plan. Through payroll deductions, all non-seasonal team members with at least 400 service hours may choose to buy unlimited shares of stock at 95% of market worth on the purchase date. Whole Foods Human Resource practices are effective because the culture allows for an atmosphere of transparency, with open books and open people. These processes include the organizations team process which allows for autonomy and a high level of responsibility of line staff. Through such a practice, members use their decision-making authority to take part in driving the business forward. Additionally, the team process promotes healthy competition, trust between members. Whole Foods Market: Recommended Strategies for Improvement Although Whole Foods HRM practices seem successful, there is room for improvement. The following strategies are recommended in the area of team implementation and practices: * If the organization maintains the team concept it is important that management ensures that members do not to obstruct the team authority over the individual. Members should merely feel responsible to each other, but still free to be themselves. Members should also be recognized as individuals. Individuals have a need to be recognized for hard work and individual achievement. Providing a reward system for individual milestones and achievements might also allow for successful company performance. * The organization should provide opportunities for personal growth and promotion through training and education. * The organization should ensure that there are no cliques within the teams. Cliques could make it difficult to maintain cohesion and cooperation within the team. Management should also ensure or encourage subtle unsanctioned norms that steer the actions of team members, saying whatÃ¢â¬â¢s suitable and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s not suitable behavior especially within the recruitment process in which members choose their team members. * The organization should periodically evaluate the alignment of team compensation and incentives for the work that is likely to be performed. * HR should monitor changes in team compensation systems to ensure the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation is clearly understood by staff and that any changes, including team incentive pay, is also communicated. HR should ensure that employees within the team are able to see and understand the goals of the team, and gain an understanding of his or her importance as a member. These improvement strategies can only make Whole Foods Market more successful than they are already. These improvements will drive the business success, by assisting in promoting productivity, by increasing job satisfaction and retention, and by increasing profits within the organization. Whole Foods Market: Plan Evaluation and Measurements Before implementation of new strategies, employees will be informed of the proposed implementation and changes. Managers will ensure that staffs understand what is being implemented and the impact to employees if any. The success of this plan will be evaluated by reviewing the success of the implemented strategies periodically to ensure continuous improvement. The evaluation of the strategies will include internal assessments and/or employee surveys/questionnaires. The internal assessments and/or employee surveys/questionnaires will be aimed to ascertain the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction of those methods and strategies. Results of the evaluation and measurements will be compiled and reviewed by the organizations HR team. The team will seek to: (1) determine if implemented strategies are predictive of organizations mission and business plan, (2) understand how implemented strategies improved or did not improve current HR practices and finally, (3) determine if there is a relationship between the implemented strategies and overall retention and job satisfaction. If the results are satisfactory, strategies will continue to be implemented monitored and reviewed. Results that are unsatisfactory will be discussed with employees to determine why the implemented strategy was not a success and to determine necessary changes if applicable. Whole Foods Market: Conclusion In conclusion both management and HR play an important role in the strategy and betterment of Whole Foods Market. This organization has already established a culture that reduces fear and increases trust. The company prides itself in the transparency between management level staff and line staff. Implementation of these strategies will only assist to increase employee satisfaction and retention.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Don Higginbotham expertly combines both primary and secondary sources providing the reader a composite historical narrative of the American Revolution as Ã¢â¬Å"seen through American ideas.Ã¢â¬ Higginbotham was Dowd Professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill until his death in June 2008. Higginbotham contributed several articles on comparative revolution and many other books and articles about the American Revolution. The bookÃ¢â¬â¢s subtitle is Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice 1763 Ã¢â¬â 1789. However, Higginbotham devotes substantial attention to other themes providing the reader with a synthesized version of the political and military aspects of the war. He also addresses the cultural and social aspects of the war. In doing so, he illustrates how the war affected the development of an American identity and how whig philosophy translated into everyday reality for the common man. Finally, he uses the book to compare the Vietnam conflict to the American Revolution. The author never directly discusses the development of an American identity, but one can see that thread as he discusses the militia system and its reinforcement of the provincialism and localism during the period (7). Higginbotham continues this theme, contending that a group of Ã¢â¬Å"American political leadersÃ¢â¬ emerged within the Continental Congress who were nationalists and desired to go beyond the simple provincial assemblies (81). Higginbotham maintains this concept, proposing that Manifest Destiny may have been an issue as early as 1776 in the colonial discussions concerning the invasion of Canada (108). The concept of an American identity came to fruition in 1776 when opinion concerning independence grew increasingly favorable (117). One could argue, however, that most Americans possessed little concept of an identity even after the Declaration was signed. Nevertheless, in 1781 the Pennsylvania line must had some concept of an American identity. After revolting due to lack of pay and other necessary items, one soldier remarked that, Ã¢â¬Å"Clinton might Ã¢â¬Ëbribe such a mean toadeater as Arnold,Ã¢â¬â¢ but Ã¢â¬Ëit is not in his power to bribe an American soldierÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (404). Without an innate knowledge of what an American soldier was, it seems unlikely that such a remark would have been made. Higginbotham clearly demonstrates how colonial Americans internalized whig beliefs and turned them into action not only resisting British authority, but also resisting its own Continental Army. This created somewhat of a quandary for colonial authorities throughout the war, for in resisting the militarism of George III (118), they needed to establish a military that became what they were fighting against. Higginbotham describes CongressÃ¢â¬â¢ first attempt at this in a Ã¢â¬Å"restrained military codeÃ¢â¬ that would reflect the society from which it originated.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
A comparison on two theorists John Dewey Ã¢â¬â Rudolf Steiner There are many theories and philosophies that have come and gone some which are still widely used today. Each human being has a mind of their own and it is because of some individuals that we are able to learn progress and teach in so many different ways. Comparing different methods, teachings, theories and ideas allows our mind to reason and understand more than Just our own point of view. In child development there Is so much to learn, each child is unique and because of this uniqueness we an not only have one pattern of teaching for every child.Every child needs to have the opportunity to succeed and progress to the best of their personal ability. I would like to compare two very intellectual and profound individuals who have expanded the minds of many people. John Dewey, a believer In Pragmatism and progressivism. HIS view was that you would develop and learn by using the mind to think and to physically do. To prepa re and enter society well equipped, mentally and physically. Ã¢â¬ I see the aim of education as the development f the Individual to function as part of a society and to contribute to the on going formation of that society' John Dewey was born In Vermont USA In 1859.He was mainly known to people about his views and philosophies on the educational system. He however shared his views about many other topics such as ethics, social theories, metaphysics and more. At the end of the nineteenth century in the United States of America a new philosophical movement started which they called Pragmatism. This was to Join intellectuals who had views, opinions and philosophical theories. The professors who suggested theories needed sufficient credibility and practicality without this they would be rejected.John Dewey played a big role In this movement whilst also publishing his work in books and sharing his theories in many different places including universities. His thoughts on the educationa l system and child's development really began to excel once he founded the University Laboratory School which became the Ã¢â¬Å"Dewey SchoolÃ¢â¬ . This is where he taught his students to have an active mind, to become educational thinkers. He believed strongly In the process of growth and high principles of mental activity. Little did he know that his theories would continue to this day.John Dewey did not believe in the rigid regimentation of the educational system which was in place and believed that each individual learner would exceed their personal best not by force but more by example, by experiencing and doing. Perfecting one self's growth and being part of a system that saw school as a social community. John Dewey believed that good' education should have a purpose In society and each Individual. John Dewey stresses the Idea that the quality as a member of society. Ã¢â¬Å"The belief that all genuine education comes about through experience does not mean that all experiences are genuinely or equally educative. Rudolf Steiner however did not see eye to eye with John Dewey on every level. They both had a deep passion for the wellbeing and development of human beings yet had different views on how to reach that successful stage in life. Rudolf Steiner, of Austrian origin was born in Croatia 1861. Being raised in a Ã¢â¬Ënatural' countryside environment allowed him from the early age of 8 to reason in his mind about the endless possibilities the human mind can have, reaching a level of spirituality from young.He is known today as the Ã¢â¬ËPhilosopher of Freedom' he wanted to educate himself and others more on spirituality and the freedom in learning and developing. Rudolf Steiner envisioned the spiritual world as being as real as the physical world we live in. He devoted his life in search of answers, he started his quest by studying Science and Philosophy in Vienna. After years of study and personal growth the answers became clear to him that he had fo und a spiritual path which was to be called Anthropology. He believed that this would lead the spiritual in the human being to the spiritual in the universe. There is nothing more important for life, even for material life, than the strong and sure realization of communion with the spiritual world. Ã¢â¬ Rudolf Steiner was a strong believer in the Ã¢â¬ËNatural' and Ã¢â¬ËHolistic' development in a child. Each phase of a child's development needed nurturing, enriching and supporting, therefore, he believed that there should be three essential takes in a child's development. Each stage lasting about 7 years, he put a lot of emphasis on the fact that not one stage should be shortened because of a set curricular expectation.He believed if each individual developed at their own pace gradually learning every important life skill they would become well educated adults. His method of teaching was never to reach statistical highs but to reach personal growth. Each child would be taught and treated as an individual, with different levels and development speeds. The three phases are 0-7 which is seen as the Ã¢â¬Ëearly holding' phase, the second phase 7-14 which is the Ã¢â¬Ëheart of the childhood' and last but not least the 14-21 which would be the Ã¢â¬Ëadolescence' phase.Each phase needs specific teaching and Rudolf Steiner made sure that there was a strong harmony in his teaching methods. This would be through artistic expression, dance (rhythmic), singing, play and many other forms of creativity. His teaching methods were not for the minority, this was a method he believed would be great for all of mankind. The spiritual harmony and togetherness he encouraged within schools would be inefficiency to every child, regardless of academic ability, class, ethnicity or religion.We shouldn't ask Ã¢â¬Å"What does a person need to be able to do in order to fit into the existing social order today? Ã¢â¬ Instead we should ask Ã¢â¬Å"what lives in each human being and what can be developed in him or her? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ë As I said in the beginning, each individual has a mind of their own. The most beautiful conclusion for me is that philosophers have pushed their mental ability to find and explain questions and doubts a lot of us have but cannot answer. I have found some truth and sense in answer but we can strive to expand our knowledge.Both John Dewey and Rudolf Steiner made it their mission in life to educate themselves and educate us. I believe that each person can relate and understand both their theories to an extent, however, we have the freedom of choice. I personally prefer Rudolf Steiner, I attended his schools during all of my primary school years and his method of teaching I would never dispute. The personal, structured learning strategies Rudolf Steiner implemented are in my opinion the most natural way to educate a young person.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Introduction An organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture can be described as a collection shared experiences over time, by resolution of problems faced in both an external and internal environment (Schein 1990, p.1100). Although, organisational culture is considered a modern concept, a historical viewpoint is explored, to provide evidence of the long held value of this concept to communities, . Furthermore, the formational factors, processes and drivers that develop culture in an organisation, whether positive or negative, will be explored. The effects of culture on an organisation will be investigated, with a case study on the FÃ ©dÃ ©ration Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), by analysing its management structure and dubious ethical standards, asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Finally, a summary of important issues and any suggestions on organisational impacts will be made. Background An investigation into organisational culture presents long standing examples of this philosophical vision throughout history (Ritchie et al. 2012,p.1099). Modern strategic management can be compared to ancient versions, in the Hebrew Old Testament. The leadership of the nation of Israel shared striking similarities to the modern concepts of organisational culture, along with other business theories considered contemporary (Ritchie et al. 2012,p.1100). The moral code within the Ã¢â¬Ëten commandmentsÃ¢â¬â¢, suggests a strong presence, in Israel, of both deep cultural beliefs and assimilation. Comparatively, modern organisational culture introduces the advantage gained from the empowerment of individuals, improving employee commitment, increasing workforce stability and developing a comprehension of overall strategies by employees (Ritchie et al. 2012, p.1106-1007). Although, it is relatively modern concept, and despite some uncertainty regarding its definition amongst academics, a generally accepted interpretation of organisational culture has developed. Organisational Culture An organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture was described earlier, as a collection shared experiences over time, by resolution of problems faced in both an external and internal environment. Additionally, to this perception , three main characteristics fundamental to the organisational